History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian's royal medal

Mr. Sarkis Dzaghigian was busy performing his day-to-day duties in a square in the city of Constantinople, when suddenly he heard loud noises and decided to find out what all the fuss was about. He joined the crowd with two of his friends and appeared right in front of the royal palace. The palace was on fire and even the harem was about to ignite. Water carriers gave up on the idea of extinguishing the fire because they didn’t have fire engines.

Sultan Mejid noticed that his harem was in danger and ordered the town crier to announce that he would reward whoever could figure a way out of this dangerous situation. Upon hearing this announcement, Sarkis and his two friends broke into the neighboring rooms of the harem. Getting burnt, his friends immediately ran away, whereas Sarkis kept on fighting the flames. Finally, he managed to detach the walls and prevented the building from catching fire. The fire gradually died down. The harem was saved.

The Queen, who had witnessed this act of bravery along with her maids, expressed her admiration for this vigorous young man and ordered Sultan Mejid to marry his daughter to this hero. Although Sultan Mejid had nothing against this idea, many authorities, advisors and imams announced that the young man had to officially adopt Islam before marrying Sultan’s daughter. When Sarkis was informed about the royal decision, he humbly bowed down and said: "Your Highness, the only thing I want is to see my king and his family safe and sound. There is nothing else I want from you."

Nonetheless, Sultan Mejid insisted on rewarding him. Realizing that the king was adamant about his decision, Sarkis said the following: "Your Highness, if that’s your final decision, then I will share with you my desire. I’d appreciate it if you issued a manifesto ordering to respect my opinion and exempting me from governmental taxes." Impressed by the intelligence of this young man, the king immediately granted him his wish. Due to this manifesto Melik Boghos and many other friends of Sarkis escaped from the jaws of death.

Walking to the gallows

In 1853 during the Russo-Turkish war the III Corps of the Ottoman Empire had to cross the large avenue of Khoshmat and take the road leading to Palu-Erzurum/Garin. Fanning out across Khoshmat the, army destroyed the gardens and seedbeds throughout the entire territory. All the doors were locked in the village. The villagers didn’t dare to go outside.
The captain and his army stopped at the edge of the well-known spring "Ag" among poplars, pines, and willows. The Melik (mayor) of the village, Boghos Chakoian, and several others went to greet the Turkish general and give him presents.

Unfortunately, when the old Melik tried to jump over the “Ag”, suddenly he lost his balance. He reached out for the Turkish flagpole, but the flagpole fell into the water together with Melik Boghos. When the general was informed about this incident, he ordered to immediately hang Melik Boghos Chakoian along with his friends: "The flag can be put in its place only after these seven men are hanged. That will happen before the sunrise."

This horrific news spread at the speed of light. The women, children and elderly people of the village came to the tent of the captain kneeling before him and bringing a lot of presents with them. All in vain! The remorseless captain was adamant about his decision. The hopeless villagers sent a horseman to the town in the middle of the night to inform Sarkis Effendi. Dzaghigian about this incident. Sarkis had just returned from Constantinople. Upon hearing this terrible news, he leapt onto his horse and reached Khoshmat in an hour. He went to the tent and asked for a meeting with the captain, but the guards refused.

Disturbed by all the noise, the captain ordered his guards to keep silent. He announced that his decision was final and that he had absolutely no desire to meet anyone. Sarkis Effendi pushed the guards out of the way and, entering the tent, said: "General, in the name of the king, please forgive these innocent people. It was just an accident!" The half-sleepy general was already heading back to bed and the guards were about to arrest Dzaghigian, when suddenly he took out his royal medal and showed it to them.

In surprise, the general stared at the medal and began to kiss it. He shouted: "I grant you your freedom in the name of my glorious king, Sultan Mejid!"

Melik Boghos thanked God for helping him. Then, turning to the general, he expressed his gratitude to him and the king. Boghos ordered the people of Khoshmat to slaughter twelve lambs to feed the army and said: "Let the feast begin!" Both the army and the general left Khoshmat pleased and filled with gratitude. They slowly moved to Erzurum/Garin.