History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Boghos Harutiunian

The Harutiunian family is famous in the history of Khoshmat for their courage. Boghos, his uncles Nazar and Markar, and other heroes symbolize the courageous spirit of Khoshmat. Although their houses were destroyed during the forced deportation, their descendants are still alive and live in Providence.

Famous throughout the village for his bravery, Boghos Harutiunian was a huge man with black, sparkling eyes. He was the first person that people would turn to for help in case of danger. The villagers knew Boghos would win any fight. The women and girls of the village used to write odes, daghs [a genre of Armenian monodic song writing] and songs in his honor.

Fragments of Boghos Harutiunian's life

Boghos built his house in the gardens of Khorodig (Purasdan,) half an hour away from the village. Once in 1890 when Boghos was in the field, busy with tying wheat sheaves, he noticed that several Kurdish mule owners were sitting next to each other smoking, laughing, and discussing something. Meanwhile their unruly animals were running over the wheat and devouring it.

Boghos approached this group with his stick to complain. One of the mule owners pointed his gun at Boghos, threatening to kill him unless he backed off. Boghos didn’t back down but walked towards the Kurdish man instead. Though the Kurd shot the gun, the bullet missed its target. Boghos instantly hit the Kurd over the back. The Kurd felt dead.

When Boghos was about to attack the rest of the group, the Kurds immediately put down their guns and admitted their mistake. Boghos then gave up his intention to kill them. The mule owners asked Boghos to take them all to the village along with the dead body of their friend. After disarming the Kurdish men, Boghos took them to the church and left them there with their friend’s dead body.

That evening this news spread through the town of Palu at the speed of light. Police inspectors came to learn the details of the incident. While telling the whole story Boghos confessed that he had killed a man for self-defense. Despite all the evidence, Boghos and dozens of other prominent villagers were taken to Palu with their hands tied behind them and were arrested there. A trial was held by the Turks; the villagers were released, but Boghos was sentenced to 15 years in jail for killing a Muslim. In Turkey there was no law of self-defense for Christians.

After the bloody massacre of 1895, Sultan Hamid released all the offenders except for political prisoners. As a result, Boghos returned to Khoshmat after spending only 5 years in jail.

*    *   *

Back in the time when Ibrahim Bey used to come to the village to take the tithe from the people plowing and sowing his fields, the young men of the village were forcibly taken to Bey’s fields by his scribe, Suleiman Effendi. These young men either had to work in the gardens or they had to carry the sheaves of wheat, barley, and millet to the Bey’s palace without any renumeration. One day when the scribe ordered Boghos to join this group of young men and help Ibrahim Bey, Boghos politely asked for a permission to go home and change his clothes first. Suleiman decided to satisfy his request, but he followed Boghos home with his two servants so as not to let him disappear from the scene.

Entering the house, Boghos grabbed his pitchfork and left with his dog. Boghos gave his dog a signal to attack the scribe. Suleiman instantly fell to the ground while the dog started ripping up his clothes. The scribe begged and ordered his men to help him but all in vain; no one dared to take out his gun in front of Boghos, who stared at them with a face turned red with rage. Out of desperation, Suleiman turned to Boghos, begging him to call back his dog and promising to grant him his freedom. Boghos accepted Suleiman’s request and said: "Effendi, from now on you’d better know who you are messing with." The brothers of this hero, Garabed and Mardiros, live in Providence now. They can also share a lot of stories on the courageous acts of their ancestors.