History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Farewell of Seven Young Men

On the morning of May 14, 1917, a dim star was still shining in the sky and the moon was playing hide-and-seek, getting lost in the clouds and then reappearing and illuminating Khoshmat again. The travelers didn’t sleep that night because of the recent incident which spread fear throughout the entire village.

Before the call of the rooster the Kurdish man Khubo (from Mghara) stealthily entered the village. He rushed to meet seven young men in order to lead them to Aleppo. These young men, who had not slept a wink the previous night, were saying goodbye to their loved ones for the last time. They tenderly kissed one another, unable to hold back their tears. A few minutes later, this group was walking towards the threshing floors of the Ghazarian family. The Kurdish man guiding the group was as young as thirty. He was gifted with all the features of a smart and brave leader. He turned to the group and called out: "Hey, friends, let’s go!" With boxes of food and clothes on their shoulders and carrying a stick in their hands, these young men marched ahead, only occasionally glancing back at the village.

In half an hour they reached the Spring Khul located in the village of Nerkhi. The spring flows through the rocks located in the extensive threshing floors of a church and pours into a small basin made of rocks. The Spring Khul is a sanctuary and a place of pilgrimage for people living in nearby villages, especially for the deaf and hard of hearing villagers who believe they will be cured thanks to this water.

Per a prior agreement, Der Mirak Norigian and several people from the village of Nerkhi had also come to this place in order to say good-bye to these young men for the last time. Rev. Der Mirak Norigian was famous for his bravery and patriotism. Even before his ordination, all the Kurds and Turks were afraid of him. But he won everyone’s admiration when he started wearing clerical clothing. Standing on a flat and firm stone, he made a sententious speech filled with excitement and patriotic spirit. He encouraged the young men and reproved despotic rulers for being so cruel to the Armenian nation. He finished his speech with these words: "My friends, you have no right to give up! Should you ever get trapped, talk boldly and with confidence; should the enemy attack, don’t ever give in but go and fight them instead like a brave man from Khoshmat would. Good luck to you all!"

As already mentioned, Der Norigian, an intelligent and dedicated man, led the Primacy together with Der Suren Deroian. Saying goodbye to the people gathered at Spring Khul, feeling hopeful and optimistic, the group moved to Palu in the middle of the night in order to easily cross the bridge of Palu in the morning. Passing over the mountain peaks of Nerkhi, Nbshi, and Amarat, the Kurdish leader Khubo changed the Armenians into Kurdish men. Then, teaching them a few words in Kurdish language, the leader announced: "Should someone approach us, I will be the one to talk."

In a very short period of time the group reached the fort of Palu. Their road led directly to the center of the town, but they didn’t changed course, heading to the quarter of Zovia instead. On the narrow, winding road the travelers met Garabed Agha Takakjian who was impatiently waiting for them there. Making a payment of 15 gold coins for them, he handed a note to the Kurdish leader. Taking off his shoes and socks, Khubo placed the note there and put on his socks again. Garabed Agha said a few encouraging words to the villagers who moved directly to the bridge.   

The River Aradzani was quite stormy because of heavy rains. The deafening sound of the fast flowing and muddy water made it nearly impossible to communicate. One could barely hear the azan (prayer) of the Mullah praying from the minaret. The group crossed the bridge. They found themselves walking in the extensive flat fields of Severeg. They avoided walking through towns, avoided meeting people as much as possible. At the advice of Kurdish shepherds, they moved towards Jarablus to cross the Euphrates. However, the fear of being caught, of losing everything they had been working for so long, stopped them. Having a premonition of danger, Khubo abandoned that plan and decided to cross the border into Syria. This way it would be possible to cross the River Euphrates by ferry.

The next day early in the morning, he went to the river but didn’t let the group leave their hiding places. Bribing the fishermen and reaching agreement with them, Khubo brought his group to the river. After many adventures and obstacles, they all finally got from one bank of the river to the other by ferry. There they found themselves in the fields of Aleppo. Khoubo took the group to the bathhouse in Aleppo. While the young men were bathing, their leader went to find the Armenian merchant in order to give him the note hidden inside his socks. This way he could receive the remaining gold coins according to the prior agreement.

Soon the Armenian merchant came to the bathhouse. Seeing the Armenian refugees there, he paid Khubo the remaining amount of money. After expressing his gratitude to the Kurdish leader, he left the bathhouse pleased and happy. Thanks to the cleverness of the Armenian merchant, the villagers were sent to Cyprus. And thanks to the support of Khoshmat people living in America, all these men finally obtained their freedom. As they took part in the fest held in New York, they were surrounded by people interested in their home, family, village and the political situation in their motherland.  The boys did their best to satisfy everyone’s curiosity.