History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Abduction of Paro

(A Group of Pilgrims)

On August 26, 1885 a noteworthy incident took place. This incident comes to prove the sense of determination of the people of Khoshmat. It shows their ability to find a way out of any difficult situation.

A young man from Khoshmat, Mr. Khachadur Janigian, an orphan, was engaged to Ms. Paris (Paro) from Isabeg village. Despite his poor living conditions, he began getting ready for a wedding.

One day Haji Khanum from Havav village, the mother of a rich and educated young man, met Paro. Admiring the young woman’s beauty, she decided to convince her to marry her son. Thanks to her sweet tongue, she managed to convince Paro to give her consent to such a marriage. But just to be on the safe side she decided to take the girl into town under the guard of horsemen and to arrange the wedding ceremony there.

When Donabed Aslanian informed the people of Khoshmat that 18 horsemen were going to Isabeg to take Paro, the huge bell of the church started ringing an alarm. In a very short time thirty brave men from Khoshmat rushed to Isabeg. As they were leaving, Der Harutiun Khojoian exhorted them: "Friends, you must either die or bring Paro to Khoshmat. I will pray to God for your success. I will conduct either your funeral or Paro’s wedding. Goodbye! Let God protect you." Then, turning to his eldest son, he said, "Andon, lead your brave friends and don’t come back without Paro.’’

This is how one needs to protect and defend his honor. Everyone would be disappointed if the young leader of the group, Nazar Nazarian, didn’t make a speech as well. He said: "As Der Harutiun has already said, you have two options—you either die or you bring Paro to Khoshmat."

Excited by this speech, the young brave men of Khoshmat went to the springs of the village Abrank, where Paro and the caravan of the armed Kurdish soldiers were planning to stop. A white horse belonging to the Milidosian family was waiting for Paro. Sahag Vartian and Khachadur Chakoian were responsible for the abduction. They were accompanied by Andon Khojoian and Boghos Saroian. The villagers were not allowed to use daggers or any other such weapons; they had to fight with their pitchforks. However, if any one of them was killed, they were allowed to use any methods necessary to mercilessly destroy the enemy. This was the command of the group leader.

Soon Paro and the Kurds’ caravan stopped near the spring to drink water and refresh their animals. Suddenly Nazar Nazarian leapt from his hiding place and approached Keko, the leader of the bandits. Nazar announced, "We made a vow to bring Paro to Khoshmat or die. If you wish to maintain our friendship, you must abandon the idea of taking Paro with you."

While Nazar was in negotiations with the Kurdish leader, his fellow villagers placed Paro on the white horse and rode directly to Khoshmat. Meanwhile dozens of horses belonging to the Kurds were lying dead on the ground. When the Kurdish leader realized that the people of Khoshmat were adamant about their decision, he ordered his soldiers to retreat. They all moved to their village, Havav, so as not to have any more casualties.

Only a group of policemen followed the kidnappers, but they were performing their duty with no enthusiasm. When one of these policemen tried to stab Nazar Nazarian with his sword, Krikor Taraian dealt a heavy blow to the policeman, knocking him to the ground. Thanks to the heroes of Khoshmat, Paro was safely brought to the house of the Taraian family where all the villagers gathered to begin a feast.

The chief police officer, Garabed, (an Islamized Armenian) was well aware of the perseverance of the people of Khoshmat; hence, accompanied by 60 policemen, he came to the house of Taraian family in order to take Paro back. However, the lionhearted women of Khoshmat surrounded the bride and started hitting the policemen with their sticks. They stopped tormenting them only when the bride, at the command of Mrs. Khabloian, demanded that the policemen immediately leave the house. Paro said that she didn’t want to cause bloodshed. She announced that she preferred her former finance and was willing to marry him.

Heroines Marta Khabloian, Altun Shaghugian, Turvanda Taraian, Baghdad Simonian, Arzun Chakoian and several others threw their sticks away and started dancing around the bride, because she had agreed to marry Janigian. Upon hearing this news, the surprised soldiers joined the women and started dancing with them.

Followed by the villagers, the women took Paro to church where the bridegroom, godfather, and old priest were waiting for them. The ceremony was followed by the wedding feast. Khachadur Janigian and his wife Paro moved to Canada and later left for Los Angeles, where they had many children and grandchildren. Paro died on March 15, 1949 at a ripe old age.