History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian's Life

In 1913 Sarkis Shahen Chakoian left his peaceful life in America behind and moved to his wonderful motherland Khoshmat to see the people he truly loved. During the horrific days of 1915, when the village was besieged by the bloodthirsty Turkish equestrian officials (gendarma) and the Kurds, Sarkis and his family followed their fellow villagers’ example and found shelter in the house of their good friend Hussein agha from the village Maman.

But things changed over time. Hussein agha’s sons heard about the arrival of Sarkis and, knowing that he had saved some money for a rainy day, they forced him to go to Khoshmat again and show them where he had hidden the box. In desperation Sarkis went to Khoshmat, took out the box of gold coins and gave it to agha’s sons, who returned to Maman pleased and happy.

But soon agha’s sons started arguing and fighting for the money. Despite their father’s command not to do so, they ordered Sarkis to immediately leave their house. Understanding that these Kurds were adamant about their decision, Sarkis’s friends left the house as well and moved to Khoshmat. However, Sarkis didn’t go to Khoshmat with them; he found shelter in the caves of Khnduni instead. His friends brought food to him every day.

One day, in the middle of the night, Sarkis entered Khoshmat and, taking weapons he had hidden in a hayloft, quickly left the village. Saying goodbye to his motherland and the people he loved, Sarkis advanced directly to Dan Balu. Every stone and bush, mountain and gorge that he saw on his way was precious to him.
Sarkis was hiding behind huge black rocks in the fields of Arghosha when three armed Kurds passed before the rocks. At that moment Sarkis attacked the Kurds and, killing all of them, took their weapons and bullets. Then he climbed the mountain and drank water from Spring Gatnaghpyur. He walked to the park Omash and met Bedros and Simon Klanian, who had been living in those thick and dense forests for several months, surviving on grain and wild fruits. When Sarkis told his friends that he had killed three Kurds, they expressed a desire to see the dead bodies. The three friends went to the place where the Kurds had been killed and started searching their pockets. However, they didn’t find money there. They continued on their way until their reached Saghin (a rivulet at the foot of Khoshmat which dries up in summer.) They met Bedros Nazarian there. At the same time, they also met a group of bloodthirsty Turks from Zovia who were wandering in Khoshmat to hunt down Armenian men and kill them in the fields. Sarkis quickly attacked these Turks and killed four of them. The others ran away in horror to avoid the bullets of the Armenian men.

The next day Bedros Nazarian was found dead on the road. Sarkis Chakoian laid Nazar’s body into a grave and started praying. Saying goodbye to his friends, Sarkis left the group, his heart filled with revenge. One of his freedom-loving friends, Bedros Klanian, returned to Khoshmat and, unfortunately, was killed by Peni Effendi. The other friend of Bedros, Simon Klanian, met a Kurdish man named Mesdo from Mghara whom he had already met before. Mesdo took him to his house as a devotedly loyal friend and hid him there until the ceasefire. Eventually Simon moved to Kharpert and left for Aleppo with other refugees. Later he managed to move to America and settle in New York, where he told people about all the sad incidents he had witnessed.

The next witness, Hovhannes Simonian, settled in Maman with his son and left for France after the war. During the Second World War he joined the army under the French flag. After fighting on several fronts, he was captured by Germans. He was held in Germany until the end of the war. Presently he lives in Marseille with his son.