History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman

One day when the herdsman was waiting for the animals of his village to group together as usual, he saw Mrs. Manush, an old lady. He noticed that she was slowly walking behind her only goat, limping and leaning on her walking stick. Her goat was also slowly walking toward the herd.

Mischievous little boys would often harass the old lady, throwing stones at her goat and making Manush go to the other side of the road. This time when the boys did that, Mrs. Manush cursed a blue streak, shouting at them: "May you rot in hell! What do you want from my poor goat? Oh my goodness! Haven’t you ever seen a goat? May God close all the doors in your life! Hey, hey, hey! My poor goat, my poor goat!"

Hearing her curses, the herdsman left the animals for a minute, approached the distressed lady, and convinced her to go home. Then he started looking for the old lady’s goat himself and, spotting the animal from a distance, he slowly walked towards her. Suddenly he felt sick and decided that this time it would be wiser of him not to take the herd to the remote valley but to graze them around the village.

At sunset when the herdsman was about to return home with the herd, he noticed the goat of sister Manush sitting in the corner and moaning with a blank look on her face. Drool was pouring out of the goat’s mouth, her eyes were half-closed, and her head was shaking.

When Sarkis grabbed the horns of the goat trying to lift her up the poor creature made a loud scream: “Meeh!” Imagine the surprise of the herdsman when he saw a kid lying in the goat’s amniotic membrane. He immediately broke the membrane cleaning the fluids from the kid’s mouth. Cutting the umbilical cord of the kid he tied it with thin pieces of grass. During this time the goat had already stood up and kept licking and cleaning her kid.

After performing the duties of a nanny, Sarkis started walking with the kid in his hands. The goat reached the herd walking towards the village with the other mammals. The herdsman immediately went to the house of lady Manoush and asked her: "How are you going to repay me, sister Manush? I have brought a goat for you. Congratulations!"

The old lady rushed to the herdsman, shouting: "Thank you sonny! God bless you. May Shushan give birth to her child as easily as my goat did today! I will be your baby’s nanny."

The herdsman replied: "Great! Thank you sister Manush! Actually, you are already our nanny. Many years ago it was you who helped my mother to give birth to me, don’t you remember?"
Lady Manush said loudly: "Oh my goodness! It never crossed my mind that this old goat would ever have a kid. I noticed that this poor animal found it hard to move this morning. Who would have thought that she was pregnant? Can you come by tomorrow? I will treat you with foremilk."

And indeed three months later lady Manush helped the herdsman’s wife to give birth to their son, Garabed who later managed to escape the bloody massacres of 1915 and settled later in Armenia. However, during those sad and tragic days, the herdsman himself was disarmed and tied with ropes with the other brave fighters of Khoshmat. In a Kurdish-inhabited village, Kharama, he was killed along with the group of Der Reteos. This is the sad irony of life!