History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Villages of Palu

The villages located in the fields and on the hillsides are purely Armenian- inhabited. Several of these villages have been dominated by Amiras and Beys for a long time. This small province was ruled by Armenian Meliks (the same way as the Melikdom of Karabakh) whose descendants are still alive. A Melik’s word was law in the province. Ancestors of a majority of these Amiras and Meliks usually were Armenian ministers whose families experienced forced conversion. As Palu is surrounded by twisted mountains it is not surprising that many villages are situated right next to these mountains. The villages of Ashnkegh, Khoshmat, Nerkhi, and Amarat are situated at the foot of the Krkur Mountains, a few miles away from each other. On the side of these mountains can be found the villages of Okhu and Tapa.

On the highlands and hillsides of the mountains opposite the Kurkur Mountains (northern side, the continuation of Syunik and Artsakh Mountains) the following villages are located: Isabeg, Artkhan, Demerji, Khamishli, Kuran, Karor (the last four villages are Kurdish-inhabited,) Havav (the biggest village,) Tset, Mrchiun, Mezre, Totig, Halalkom, Tavti Mezre, Khajar, Kharagerug, and Kengalu (inhabited by Turks.)

At the eastern foot of the Krkur Mountains, a little away from Khoshmat there are also Kurdish-inhabited villages: Mirahmed (Lower and Upper,) and Kharashegh. And, finally, the villages located in the flat fields are Abrank, Shnaz, Chayri Mezre, Sgham, and Sakrat. (The last one is famous as a residency of moneylender beys who will be thoroughly discussed later.) These villages are situated on the quay and in the surroundings: Seydilar (Turkish), Nor Kegh, Norshnag, Nor Kiugh, Mrza, Armdjan, Gulishger, and Uzunova. The villages face the fields of Kharpert from the west of the province and the only barrier they are separated by is the Aradzani River. Located very close to the river these villages are rich with vegetables and agricultural crops. The production of delicious, big watermelons and sweet melons is especially popular here.

The territory on the opposite side of the river which is separated from Palu itself by the Aradzani River is called Ashmoushad. It is closer to Diyarbekir/Dikranagerd and is comprised of the following Armenian and Kurdish-inhabited villages: Hun, Sarachor, Baghin (the biggest one), Srin, Til, Khacha-Vank, Trkhe, Nadjaran, Upper (Veri) and Lower (Vari) Vartenig, Sarikhamish, and Kharaban (the last two villages are Kurdish-inhabited.) These villages are situated on the Taurus Mountains and are rich with vegetables, fruits and especially grapes.