History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

In May of 1897 Rushdi Bey from Sakrat invaded Khoshmat with his twenty-five horsemen, spreading dread and fear everywhere. Approaching the house of Melik Hagop Kaloian, they stopped and bridled their horses. Melik invited the Bey and his soldiers into his house. He butchered a calf as a sign of hospitality and respect to his guests.

Upon hearing the news of the Bey’s arrival, Mr. G. Antoian immediately sent his greetings to him as his humble servant. These two families were farmers who plowed the lands of Rushdi Bey. The people of Khoshmat who returned from field work and the elderly people of the village came together in a place which was very popular among the villagers—the flat roof of the Deradurian family. They all came together to discuss the current issue of Rushdi Bey and his horsemen. The hotheaded young men were ready to teach a lesson to these intruders right away, but the elderly people argued that it would be wiser to wait for the right moment.

The next morning at sunrise, this group went to Purasdan (Khorodig,) located in Khoshmat, in order to make a preliminary reconnaissance. Rushdi Bey believed that his castle would look wonderful in this place. Who would dare to go against the wishes of this dangerous beast? The Bey had already informed the elderly people of Khoshmat of his intention and ordered them to find the best bricklayers who would build his castle for a barrel of money.

Purasdan belonged to the St. Asdvadzadzin church and, therefore, to the landowner, Mariam Ulusian. The people of Khoshmat had been loyal to their religion and its sacred places for ages and hence they could not tolerate the wrongful demands of Rushdi Bey.

The church embodied the idea of God’s invincible love for the brave people of Khoshmat; it was a source of courage, forwardness, energy and fighting spirit for them. This mysterious sanctuary was a symbol of unsurpassed love for the villagers; hence each of them was ready to fight to the bitter end for it.

During a large meeting with almost all the people of Khoshmat (both the children and the elderly people) present, the villagers wrote a resolute letter and sent it to Rushdi bey. The letter said: "We cannot satisfy your desire and we order you to leave the village if you don’t want this situation to end in bloodshed."

Disappointed, but with a heart filled with a desire for revenge, Rushdi Bey left the village with his guard. However, he subsequently took legal action against the people of Khoshmat; he fully expected to win the case through bribery. But the people of Khoshmat proved that Purasdan had been the site of the church for 300 years and ultimately won the case. Though this legal case cost them 1000 Ottoman gold coins, the people of Khoshmat managed to protect Purasdan.