History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghugian (Kaloian)

The news of the massacre and deportation reached Palu on May, 1915. These were days of deaths, demolition, carnage and confiscation.

During those worrisome days, a council was held at St. Asdvadzadzin (The Holy Mother of God) church under the presidency of Der Reteos Simonian and Der Manug Khojoian. The goal of the council was to generate ideas in order to cope with the threats to the lives of the Armenian people.

The chairman, Mr. Mikayel Ulusian, announced that "the Government has ordered us to disarm the villagers, surely just to slaughter the unarmed people later. So, what’s the decision of the council?" After expressing opinions for and against the resolution, it was decided to hand over weapons in order to save the lives of the children and women of the village. Suddenly Garabed Klanian, a young man of middle height and with sparkling eyes, shouted, "Dear compatriots, during these fatal days the Turkish Government decided to disarm us. It’s beyond question that they intend to slaughter us. These immoral policemen will mistreat our children and women. No, we are not going to hand over our weapons just to be slaughtered like sheep. That would only show disrespect to our brave ancestors. Should we die, we will do that with dignity, holding weapons in our hands and defending the honor of our motherland."

It was decided to send a delegation to Havav in order to find out what decision they had made. Garabed Klanian and a few more people visited Havav in the middle of the night and, secretly staying in the house of Mr. Leylegian, were informed that the people of Havav intended to hold a community meeting. This meant that they would be able let theirs villagers know about the decision made during that meeting.

And indeed, when the people of Khoshmat were making fatal decisions in an effort to overcome this difficult situation, a middle-aged woman from Havav bowed down to Der Reteos the priest Simonian, took a letter out of her breast pocket, handed it to the priest, and disappeared. The letter said:

"Dear people of Khoshmat. In these fatal days the situation in Havav is grim and uncertain. Despite adjurations of our brave villagers, there were some cowards who made the decision to hand over their weapons. Unfortunately, the priest of Havav was the first to order the people to show obedience to the Turkish Government.
Good luck to all the people of Khoshmat. A villager from Havav, A. Leylegian"

When the chairperson, Mikayel Ulusian, expressed a desire to know the attendants’ opinions on this terrible news, he watched the people gradually leaving the church without making any decision. Rev. Reteos the priest Simonian ended the meeting exhorting everyone either to help the young men fighting for their motherland or settle in one of the nearby Kurdish-inhabited villages.

A small group comprised of young men started preparing for the upcoming dangerous fight; the other villagers ran to the nearest Kurdish-inhabited villages to find protection there. Later, witnesses informed us of the outcome of this situation. I have included these people’s stories and even had face to face conversations with some of them.