History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

Mgrdich Taraian, who lived in Khoshmat during these calamitous days, sent his memoirs to us. Some incidents described in his memoirs are quite noteworthy. Almost all the people who experienced the massacre describe banishments, lootings and mass crimes the same way.

When Mgrdich and a group of Armenians went to the village of Maman, they met the Kurds who, in the past, used to fight with Sahag Chakoian. This time they mercilessly killed him on the spot. That same night Sarkis Simonian and Kevork Nigoghosian left Khoshmat; covered with blood, they reached Maman and told everyone how difficult it was for them to get to the Kurdish village along a road strewn with dead bodies.

A few days later dozens of soldiers came to Maman; they gathered and tied up all the men and took them to Palu. Later these men were all killed and thrown into the Aradzani River.

Being a child, Mgrdich was allowed to stay with his mother. Two weeks later Mgrdich and his mother went to Khoshmat and met Donabed and Nigoghos, who had managed to survive by hiding themselves in the rocks of St. Mangig. (Kevork Nigoghosian, another of the survivors, currently lives in Providence.) Mgrdich remembers: "I rushed to the school in the afternoon in hopes that I would find people who had managed to survive. When I opened the door, I shrank back in horror from the sight of a pile of rotting corpses."

Mgrdich’s mother said that respecting her husband’s order, she had kept some money in the bird’s nest. Mgrdich got on his mother’s shoulders and found 47 Ottoman gold coins which helped him to obtain freedom later.

Mgrdich worked for the Kurds after his mother and other relatives were deported. One day, after the ceasefire, he ran to Kharpert in hopes that he would find shelter in the orphanage. Unfortunately, he was rejected. Desperate at this point, Mgrdich started working for a Turkish agha. One day he was stabbed with a dagger by a Turkish boy living in the neighborhood; he was left bleeding on the ground. Fortunately, a schoolteacher who was walking down the same road noticed the dying Armenian boy and took him to the orphanage where Mgrdich stayed for some time, finding there his former playmates from Khoshmat. When the orphans were taken to Aleppo, Mgrdich had the happiness to find his mother, sisters, brothers, aunt and her children there. (A police officer had lied to him, telling him that all his relatives were dead.)

An interesting incidence

Mgrdich adds this story: “One day when we were watching camels walking in the streets of Aleppo, I suddenly noticed a young cameleer. Although his face was covered with a kerchief, his eyes seemed quite familiar to me. Coming closer to the cameleer I tried to recall where I could have seen this young man before. The next minute I began hugging the cameleer, shouting: ‘Garabed, is it you? Yes, it’s you. I’m your aunt’s son, Mgrdich. Oh, Garabed…!’

“The cameleer pushed me aside, quite agitated, and told me in Arabic that he was Muslim and didn’t want any Gavur to touch him.”

Mgrdich says he grabbed the cameleer’s wrist and took him to the nearest inn. He led him to his room and locked the door from the inside. There he begged Garabed to join him in order to see his mother who lived only a few streets away. Garabed strongly rejected his request. Mgrdich had to take desperate measures; he took out his dagger and threatened to kill Garabed if he turned out to be a Kurd or Arab. If he was Armenian, he would agree to join them. At this Garabed agreed to join the Armenian boys who were waiting outside. When they reached the house, Garabed and his mother hugged each other.

Mgrdich came to Marseille from Aleppo, hoping to depart from there for America. But he had to stay in Marseille due to some unfavorable circumstances. He eventually married and created a traditional Armenian family there.