History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Baghdasar Deradurian’s (from Marseille) Testimonies

When the Turkish and Kurdish soldiers besieged Khoshmat, he broke the siege with the white horse of Haji Abdin from Miraymad (a Kurdish-inhabited village.) Then he gathered the families he knew (including the Deradurian family) and took them to Miraymad, where they could safely live with other Kurdish families.

A few days later the bloodthirsty men of Rushdi Bey came with a group of police officers and started gathering the Armenians hiding in the village. When the hiding place of Sarkis Milidosian was discovered, the Bey’s men immediately recognized him. After tying Milidosian’s wrists behind his back, one of the servants asked, swaggering: "Wasn’t it you who cursed the Bey’s wife and his religion two years ago?"

Sarkis responded audaciously and coldly: "Yes I did. Moreover, I can repeat what I said even now with tied hands. If you are a noble and brave man, then untie my hands, but if you are just a coward, Turk, you’d better kill me. You dare to use force only on unarmed people. If you are a brave and honorable man, I repeat, put your weapons down, untie my hands and stand in front of me like a real man and only then dare to swagger. But if you are a coward devoid of human dignity then kill me and just prove my words."
Unable to bear these abusive words, Hassan put the gun to the head of Sarkis and shamelessly killed him in the presence of the Armenian refugees and the Kurds from Miraymad.

One day the people of Khoshmat living in the Kurdish village Maman were brought to the village Miraymar. Among them there were people who Mr. Baghdasar was close with—teachers Mr. Hagop Simonian, Mr. Dikran Bedigian, the latter’s father Ghazaros Bedigian and Sarkis Shahrigian (the herdsman of Khoshmat.) Other people from Khoshmat also joined this group. One of them was Der Manug Khodjoian. Searching his pockets, the enemies discovered a cutting tool and mercilessly cut the priest’s ears with it. Taking this group to the scaffold, the Turks killed them in the nearest canyon. Later they took the women and children to Palu and threw them into the river.

This heartbreaking scene was described on June 13, 1917, by an eyewitness, a young girl named Bahag. The text was written by Mr. Yervant Taraian from Khoshmat. According to the girl, every night the people living in the Armenian villages of Palu were gathered at the edge of the Murad/Aradzani River. For over fifteen days they were killed in the slaughterhouse and their dismembered bodies were thrown into the river.

One day this poor girl ran to Dersim in the middle of the night where she obtained freedom thanks to the hospitable Kurds. Visiting Khoshmat a few months later, Baghdasar discovered that the village was in a total chaos. There were burnt, dilapidated buildings, demolitions and destructions everywhere. Living in these ruins for four years, Baghdasar and his friends went to Kharpert with Vartan Shahrigian, his brother Garabed and sister Etar. One day they left for Aleppo, joining a group comprised of people from Khoshmat (whom they knew.) They eventually traveled to Marseille, where they married and settled permanently.

Mr. Baghdasar described this situation sometimes citing Kamar Katiba [The correct name of the author is Avedis Aharonian]: "Should our children ever forget the sufferings we experienced, The entire world is free to reprove the Armenians"


Though I could cite many other memories of eyewitnesses, I have decided to include only some of them in order to avoid repetition. All who survived by miracle were the innocent victims of savage tyrants.