History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Soldiers of Khoshmat

Khoshmat had a small number of soldiers who did credit to their country and community:

Sahag Ghazarian (Pagents)

Having received his primary education in Khoshmat, he left for Constantinople. There he successfully completed the Imperial School of Military Engineering and held posts in the army.

Bedros Efendi Fermanian

Leaving the post of the school inspector of Khoshmat, he went to Palu to participate in governmental work. Due to his impartiality and selfless acts, he became a court official and was rewarded with a sword which he would often carry with him.

Sarkis Efendi Dzaghigian

As we have already mentioned, he always carried a royal medal and a sword awarded to him for his bravery, which he wore on his uniform.

Mardiros Hagop Chakoian

Telling the whole truth about the history is of high importance. So, I hope it’s not immodest of me to say that the author of this book also made his own little contribution, serving in the armed forces during the First World War.

After taking his military training at the University of Iowa in 1911 and completing his dental training in 1914, he settled in Chicago, providing youth there with military training. Obtaining a private license from the Governor of Illinois, he created the "Armenian Military Group;" its soldiers were provided with American military uniforms and guns. Next to the stars and stripes of the American flag one could also see the tricolor flag of Armenia (during military trainings.) He also displayed a coat of arms and a copy of Mother Armenia,  which he obtained from Saint Lazarus in Venice and kept it as a relic. Perhaps one day it will be on display in a museum.

The group created in Chicago in 1915 stayed under the control of Avedis Muradian (an officer of Illinois National Guard.) Meanwhile Chakoian was busy forming other similar groups in Detroit in order to train the Armenian boys the same way the soldiers in the American army were trained. As the news about the massacres of the Armenians started to spread in America, the younger generation of Armenians could not hide their desire to take revenge against the tyrants. The number of the boys in the military group was continually growing and the soldiers were already training in large fields.

The support of the Armenian audience is also noteworthy. They would come to the field to watch the boys training and would often be present during different military events.
The Armenian National Military Committee in New York was excited to learn what was happening in the Middle West and sent a representative there. The late colonel of Palu Hagop Takakjian personally took part in the trainings, visited all the military groups and congratulated the leaders on their successful imitative.

The late Captain Jim Chakalian also participated in the trainings of these military groups. Because he was so impressed with their training, he offered to unite all these groups with the Armenian National Committee. The boys accepted the Captain’s offer with pleasure.

Most of these well-trained groups went to the battlefields of the Caucasus and Cilicia as volunteers. The Armenian volunteers who fought under the flag of the Armenian National Committee held different posts in the Armenian Legion thanks to the military trainings they had taken. They upheld the honor of the Armenian nation in the battle of Arara and fought in support of the Allied powers. These volunteers performed their duties with excellence and were praised for their efforts by General Allenby.