History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Abdel-Mseh (Donag)

There is a well-known sanctuary in Khoshmat called Abdel-Mseh which has served as a place of pilgrimage for the sick for quite a long time. Located on the north-eastern side of the village, at the foot of a tall mountain, inside large, gray rocks and watered by the pure waters of the “Ag” (source), this sanctuary was always open for visitors. All day and night the oil lamps were burning in the sanctuary. The pilgrims used to walk toward this chapel excited and filled with fear. After passionately praying and lighting a candle or an oil lamp they went back home filled with a sense of satisfaction.

There are two legends associated with Abdel-Mseh that prove the existence of this sanctuary.

History tells that in the days of idolatry, when the entire territory of Urartu was under the domination of Khaldi, people of Khoshmat also worshipped this deity. However, there were people who secretly worshiped the Son of God. Khoshmat was not an exception and some people living in this village secretly worshipped Jesus. One day one of these Christians was caught praying and crossing his face. Learning about this incident, some pagans organized a group attack against this person. In desperation the Christian man somehow broke the chain of the attackers and managed to escape the danger, running.

He reached the spring "Ag" and fell into the water breathless. The group of pagans who were following him reached this place and killed the Christian villager mercilessly, letting his dead body float on water for three nights.  

Legend says that every night the dead body of this Christian villager radiated a light. Noticing this magical light, the villagers built a chapel in the place they found the body of this man and buried his corpse there. This chapel was turned into a place of pilgrimage later with oil lamps burning all day and all night.

The second legend is even more interesting and mystical. During the reign of the Sultans, there was a wealthy Turkish family living in an Armenian-inhabited village. The head of this Turkish family was Mustafa, who was a fanatic Muslim whereas his wife Fathima supported the Christian population. This couple had a son named Abdullah.  

Armenian boys were playing games, joking and having a meal when Abdullah approached them asking if he could join them as well. The Armenians rejected him, saying that Abdullah smelled very bad because he was not baptized.
When Abdullah asked the Armenian boys why they didn’t smell bad, the boys told him it was because they were baptized in the basin of the Holy Mother of God and were anointed with the holy chrism. The boys added that if Abdullah also wanted to be clean, he would need to be baptized as well.

As the Turkish boy really wanted to play and have a meal with the Armenian boys, he agreed to be baptized. Upon receiving Abdulla’s agreement, the boys of Khoshmat started the "ceremony". One of them played the role of a priest and the other boy became a Godfather. They dipped the Turkish boy into the streamlet, telling him that Jesus was baptized like this in the Jordan River by John the Baptist.

After playing this game the boys officially anointed Abdullah and gave him the name "Mushegh" or "Musegh." They also taught the Turkish boy "The Lord's Prayer" and the sign of the cross.

From that moment on Musegh’s playmates called him by his new name. However, Musegh’s father didn’t give any importance to that. One day while having dinner Musegh suddenly crossed his face. Noticing the sign Mustafa started asking questions to his son in order to find out the truth.  The boy confessed that he had adopted Christianity and crossed his face again. Frustrated at his son, Mustafa was about to take out his sword when Musegh quickly ran out of the house. Reaching the spring "Ag," he hid behind the huge rocks. However, Musegh’s father managed to find him and mercilessly killed his son right there.

At that point Musegh’s body began radiating a light every night.

The boy’s father refused to bury his son as a Turk in the land owned by them (outside the village, next to the hillside.) The people of Khoshmat in their turn were against burying the Turkish boy in the cemetery of Armenians. The argument lasted for several days. In the meantime, the dead body of the Turkish boy was shining bright in the dark.

Finally, the people of Khoshmat built a chapel in the place where the Turkish boy was killed and, burying the boy there, they named the chapel "Abdul Musegh" or "Abdiul Muse." There is no person in Khoshmat who is not aware of the magical power of this chapel.