History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Humanlike Stones

In Khoshmat, on the slope of a very high mountain (Jghlesar/Mount Jghle) there are two giant humanlike stones (Chatal stones) standing at the top of the village. These stones are famous among the villagers as Jyughe Sar or Jghle Sar. (This mountain is a branch of the Krkur Mountains which stretches from the Aradzani River to the mountains of Sassoun. This is how the spring Krkur got its name.) Between these stones’ edges there is a wide opening through which a lot of mischievous little boys frequently pass.

According to a legend these stones were once a bride and bridegroom who were petrified next to the mountain the same way Lot was, for committing a sin. This pair of stones has been faithfully keeping watch over the village and cemetery, the church and school, the living and the dead. It must be amazing what they have seen and what kinds of days they have silently witnessed.

There is also another group of humanlike stones lying across Khorodig (“garden,”) between the orchards and Aradzani where red hillocks follow each other. There are different interpretations regarding these humanlike stones. According to one legend, the big and small colorful stones around the two main pair of stones (the bride and the bridegroom) symbolize newborn babies.
All the people in Khoshmat watch these stones with great wonder every time they bring soil from the red mound or just pass by them when they go to work in the remote garden.

There is no doubt there are mines of copper, iron, silver, mercury and even gold in these red hillocks. The colorful soil surface already serves as evidence of the existence of a mine. The potters of Khoshmat make clay pots from this soil. Wine pots, beehives, water pitchers, cooling flagons, churns for making buttermilk, boilers and bowls are all made from this red soil. It is likely that over the centuries many volcanic eruptions occurred on these mountains and that these humanlike and pockmarked stones are the results of lava flows. Nonetheless, people have created exceptionally interesting mythical stories about them.

These legends are very similar to odes which are based on a series of fantastical stories (fairy tales); for example, the story about the fight of wedding guests who ultimately turn into stones or the story about Shah Ismail’s raid and his petrification. However, the legend which has a special place in these villagers’ hearts is the love story between the son of a king and a poor peasant girl. These kinds of stories are very popular among villagers, especially during the winter season when people gather together after field work in order to have a good time by sharing fairy tales, riddles and mythical legends.

Of course, we are talking about these stories just for interest. They have nothing to do with historical facts and the real lifestyles of the people in this village.

Near these humanlike stones, at the roadside situated next to the red mound, there is a hawthorn covered with thousands of colorful pieces of fabric by passersby and superstitious people. They attach a piece of fabric, thread or grass to the tree while making a wish at the same time. This is a living example of a deeply rooted belief which has had a special place in the villagers’ lives for centuries.