History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

There is no information on the social conditions, culture and educational system of Khoshmat prior to 1880, when the educational field finally began to take root; the idea of establishing a school in Khoshmat was born in Constantinople. This institution was launched at the initiative of several selfless people of Khoshmat [settled in Constantinople] and the tireless efforts of the first members of the Association— Krikor Milidosian, Arakel Milidosian, Hovhannes Effendi Aznavurian and Kara Toros Malian (Ghazarian). These brave compatriots came together to discuss the educational issues of their hometown, then launched an initiative to build a school in Khoshmat. For this they turned to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, asking for the money collected in the money tray in one of the Armenian churches in Constantinople on Saturdays. Ultimately, they achieved their goal.

During this same time, Hayots Miatsial Engeroutiun (United Association of Armenians) was a newly established association in Constantinople with the aim of promoting education in the provinces. Mountainous Khoshmat didn’t go unnoticed by them and received support from the Association at the earliest opportunity.

The establishment of the school and the support of the United Association wasn’t enough for the people of Khoshmat living in Providence, Rhode Island, in the United States. They, too, aspired to launch an educational institution in the village.  They were:

Baghdasar Klanian
Hampartsum Vartanian
Khachadur Zulumian
Garabed Ulusian
Mikayel Ulusian

At a meeting in 1893 they agreed to establish a library which, along with the school, would improve the quality of education that young men living in Khoshmat received.

Feeling encouraged by the support from outside, the people of Khoshmat tore down the stone embellished school located next to the ancient church and started the construction of a new one. This newly built two story school was situated 400 steps away from the church. It was quite an eye-catching building—150 feet in length, 100 feet in width and with glass windows. The school had a large hall and a wonderful two-foot high stage surrounded by comfortable chairs on two sides. In the center of the stage there was a rostrum for public speaking, the surrounding walls of which were covered with colorful geographical maps. Gradually the large, long hall was furnished with chairs and desks arranged in two rows. Each desk had four drawers—one drawer per pupil. All the classrooms and the teacher’s meeting room were fully furnished.

Due to the bloody massacre in 1895, the United Association of Armenians had to stop operating in the education sector leaving the entire burden on the shoulders of the "Library Association" established in Providence (USA). In order to progress beyond this difficult situation, on February 25, 1895, the people of Khoshmat living in Providence (the number of which was gradually growing) came together to create a new union called the "Tbrotsasirats Association of Palu-Khoshmat Village". This group included, in addition to the names of the original group stated above, the following people:

Manug Ghazarian
Mardiros Harutiunian
Toros Klanian
Bedros Ulusian
Hovhannes Diradurian
Tovmas Tepelian
Avedis Deroian (from Havav)
Garabed Mamurian
Khachadur Hazarian
Over the years many other names were added to this list.

This newly formed Association played a huge role in promoting educational issues of the village and especially the progress of the school. It did an outstanding work, coming to the aid of the tumble-down school of the village by reopening it and acknowledging its establishment. (The Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat also played a major role in the publication of this book.)
With the patronage of the newly formed Tbrotsasirats Association, the school of Khoshmat made huge progress. From 1895 to 1909, the school was able to operate thanks to the sacrifices of this association. Then, from 1909 to 1914, the period prior to World War I, the educational responsibilities were handed over to the United Association of Armenians.

It is worth mentioning at this point that in 1880, at the initiative of the Patriarch Nerses, 48 executive and 17 honorable members joined the United Association of Armenians for the sake of educational development of schools operating in the province. Among the enthusiastic supporters were the following individuals:

Krikor Ardzruni from Tbilisi
Hovhannes Vartsekuliants from Baku
A. Navasartian from Vagharshabad
A. Shahinian from Mush
James Bryce from London
Mgrdich Sanasarian from St. Petersburg
Ishkhan Aslan Pakrad from Naples, Italy
Hovhannes Spartalian from Smyrna

At the initiative of the United Association, 90 pre-schools, one college, the small school of Khoshmat and many other institutions were launched in the main villages of the province in a very short time. As the brochure published by the United Association of Armenians in 1911-1912 states, ‘’Although there is still room for improvement in regards to the school building of Khoshmat, there is a sufficient quantity of desks there and the education level is satisfactory due to the enthusiasm, diligence and inner strength of the headmaster” (referring to Mr. Arakel Babajanian).

In September of 1909, under the patronage of the United Association, the school of Khoshmat reopened. The school had 120 pupils and 5 specialists. The budget for this project was 6286 ghurush or 60 Turkish gold coins, a part of which was donated by the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat formed in Providence.

In 1911 the school had 160 pupils and a budget 7403 ghurush; from 1912-14 the number of students reached 210. Every year the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat donated 400 USD to the school. Later they donated a good amount of money intended for the education of girls. (This information was retrieved from a notice printed by the United Association of Armenians.)
Across the entire territory of Palu (apart from Havav,) the school of Khoshmat had a special place, not only for the people of Khoshmat but also for those living in adjacent villages and cities. All rich and eminent individuals without exception sent their children to this famous institution to receive an education. Among the graduates of the school of Khoshmat are many honorable figures of our nation who have held leading positions in the social, educational, and governmental fields. There are also graduates who have played a huge role in the literary and educational fields, making honored teachers, clergymen, public figures and artists. Some of these individuals lived abroad. The ones who settled in America achieved especially high positions. Unfortunately, it is impossible for us to present their complete biographies; instead here is a brief list.