History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Khoshmat Through My Eyes

My role was almost insignificant and short-lived in the long and glorious history of Khoshmat, but I couldn’t resist the desire to publish a book about this amazing place. I thought to offer this as a friendly gesture, and I believed that people would appreciate the small contribution that I had in the history of the village.

In 1906-1907, at the start of the school year, two strangers in the company of another man from Havav paid me a visit. These people were originally from Khoshmat—the Chairman and the Head of the administrative department of the school. On behalf of the Education Council of Palu they came to offer me the positions of the headmaster and teacher of the school. Khoshmat was considered the second largest Armenian-inhabited village in the province; hence I was told that I needed two assistants who would help me with daily tasks. We came to agreement and the very next day I started working there. My colleagues were Harutiun Vartian and Bethlehem Shaghugian. All three of us were quite young.

I was responsible for the division of labor, which I managed to do upon the advice of my two colleagues and the Trusteeship Council.

The school of my hometown, Havav, had been using the curriculum of Getronagan school (in Mezre) for years. This curriculum served as the basis for this institution as well; we chose books and created groups and a teaching schedule accordingly. The pupils were quite smart and my two colleagues, with whom I always stayed in a good relationship, were conscientious, punctual and respectful to me. Unfortunately, in the middle of winter I was bedridden with pleurisy, which led me to total despair.

Khoshmat was a village consisting of approximately 100 houses spreading across the eastern side of the hill. The air was fresh there and the water was pure and cold. There was a stone church, the dome of which used to shine under the rays of the sun. In the southeastern part of the village, directly in front of the church, was a two-story school. The locals were engaged in farming—the majority of them worked on their own land while a minority served the devilish Rushdi bey as maraba villagers.

The entire village was populated by Armenians except for a territory inhabited by three Turkish families. The members of the first family were Rushdi’s proxies and had lived in the village for years. The other two families were moneylenders who made a living by offering personal loans and earning money on interest. The villagers were poor and managed to pay the extremely high taxes imposed by the Government only with the help of loans. All in all, the existence of these three Moslem families was tolerable due to the brave and freedom-loving nature of the people living in Khoshmat. These unbidden guests and generally all the Moslem inhabitants of the adjacent villagers were very aware of the inner strength of Khoshmat’s people.

All the people were friendly and honest towards me, but I consider it my duty to mention the name of the head of the Administrative Department of the school—Hagop Ulusian. He was quite an intelligent person, familiar with the history of Armenia and krapar (Classical Armenian.) We would often read chapters from Haig Tyutsazn (The Epic Hero Haig) together, striving not to get lost in the dark labyrinth of grammar and rich vocabulary. He, like so many others, was killed during the Armenian Genocide.

Khoshmat, once inhabited by courageous people, is no longer an Armenian village. Today only owls are hooting over the ruins of the school and picturesque church…

Detroit, 7th of December 1949   
Diran Pashalian,