History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America


Easter is one of the most joyful, cheerful, and mystical festivals in Palu. All nature seems to rejoice with the glorious Holy Resurrection of Jesus Christ, generating laughter and joy. Early in the morning the April sun gradually rises between the Taurus Mountains, melting the snow with its scorching beams. The snow melting off the mountains results in the swelling of the foamed and muddy river Saghin which, often being impassable, creates problems for the villagers.

The first flower of spring, the snowdrop, raises its head on the plateau of Jghlisar as if announcing the coming of spring. Fragrant, colorful violets and chamomiles with yellow cones and white petals sprout under the snow. So, Easter is celebrated in this bright and cheerful period of the year.

On Easter morning even before the church bell rings people rush to church. They all are burning with the desire to see Jesus’s glorious and yet empty grave, usually placed right in front of the church on Friday evening. After the Resurrection liturgy and mutual congratulations, people return home to celebrate Easter. They are treated with special Easter dishes such as madagh and harissa.

Preparation of harissa (keshgeg)

As legend goes, after the adoption of Christianity by the Armenian King Tiridates III, Gregory the Illuminator was ordered to destroy all the magnificent pagan temples dedicated to the deities Anahid, Asdghig and Vahakn (in the town of Ashdishad, Daron province) and to replace them with the Echmiadzin Cathedral. In 303 Gregory the Illuminator completed this impressively beautiful cathedral with the help of the villagers and the design of talented architects. The entire Armenian nation was invited for a big celebration.

Sacrificing a large number of sheep, Saint Gregory ordered the people to place the chopped meat into a large pot, add some gorgod (ground, par-boiled shelled wheat,) and stir fry the mix with a ladle. He would walk from one pot to another ordering, "Stir this (harek sa!)” So the name of the dish came from the saint's own words. Harissa is the most nutritious, delicious, and honored dish in Armenian cuisine. The villagers in Armenia are committed to keeping traditions alive so they never change the recipe of this dish.

Snack and omelet, malez (a sweet, custard-like gruel) and thick yogurt, small meatball and chopped, sautéed onions, pagharch (unleavened bread,) and goma are additional dishes prepared on this occasion.

Preparation of goma: Stretch the dough, sprinkle ground walnuts, almonds, mzegh (strands of cooked/pulled meat,) khavoorma (braised meat browned and stored in its own fat,) and artar yegh (clarified butter or ghee.) In the evening bury the dough in hot ashes of the fire and leave it there. In the morning take out the ready dish, divide it into pieces and treat the guests.

After enjoying these delicious dishes, the young people of the village take onion-skin eggs and go to church. They place the boiled colored eggs on the gravestones built next to the church. They take one of these eggs and measure the hardness of the eggshell, trying to crack the egg with their teeth. If the sound is vibrating, it means the eggshell is thin, but if the sound is firm and clear, then the eggshell is quite tough. The villagers take the egg with the toughest eggshell and rush to tap and break the eggs of their opponents without breaking their own. Finally, they collect all the broken eggshells and the battle of eggs ends.

The day following Easter is called All Souls’ Day (merelots). People visit the graves of their relatives, clean the gravestones, and wait for the priest of the village to come and bless the tombs of their loved ones in a special family cemetery.

Freshening up, the young and middle-aged people gather on the roofs to dance and have fun together. They all dress in their best: red yamanig (pointed shoes,) a red salta (jacket,) dichlig (semi-jacket,) a beautiful thick belt, and a colorful hat. Ladies also take part in the feast. They wear red charigs (shoes,) and blue handmade aprons with small pockets that have colorful edges. The celebration of Easter lasts for three days.