History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

Personal Memoirs

Upon the end of the horrific massacres of 1895, the people of Khoshmat who lost everything they once had were in a battle for life. Both the rich and the poor were in the same boat. Unfortunately, my late father, Hagop, died young of pneumonia on the eve of the massacres. I can hardly remember him. A few months after the massacre, in 1896, my mother decided to take us to Kharpert/Harput with the hope to leave me and my brother under the care of the orphanage.

We left our village on a very bright morning. Walking down the threshing floors and mountains, we reached St. Mangig, which is a well-known powerful sanctuary not far from Khoshmat. My mother ordered us to stop there and pray on our knees, asking St. Mangig to protect us during our journey.

Thus kneeling, my brother, Boghos, was curiously staring at the huge grey rock of St. Mangig, the niches of which were full of pieces of burnt candles. After saying The Lord's Prayer by heart and crossing myself, I looked at my mother. She was praying and whispering her wishes on her knees. Despite being illiterate, she was a very pious and God-fearing woman.

"Oh, good morning, kind Mangig! Here we are, me and my two sons. I’m begging you on my knees to help and protect us. Please talk to God and put in a word for us. You have always fulfilled the wishes of people who prayed to you. I know you will show us the right path too, saving us from enemies and protecting us during our journey.
"God please have pity on my poor sons and don’t let anyone hurt them. You are our Father, the only one we can rely on and ask for help. May your guardian angels always lead us! Please, St. Mangig, help us to find happiness in the place we are going to now. Oh, St. Mangig, I’m leaving my sons under your care. St. Mangig, I’m asking you once again to talk to God and put in a word for us. Let God’s will be done. Amen."

We stood up. Crossing ourselves, we continued our journey towards the unknown world.

I looked back at my native village. Bitterness crept through my soul because I was leaving Khoshmat. Unfortunately, this was the last time I would ever have a chance to look at my hometown. These are my last childhood memories of Khoshmat.

I strongly believe that God heard our prayers to St. Mangig and protected us not only during the journey, but throughout our entire lives. Even during the disastrous days of 1915, my mother survived the massacres. Escaping from the claws of death she managed to obtain freedom and enjoy her life with her sons, grandchildren, their children and daughters-in-law. My mother died in Chicago, on Nov. 16, 1948 at the age of 80.

We visited my aunt in the village of Armjan and had a rest in her house for a few days. Later, joining Mr. Tateosian and his mule owner friends, we went to the town of Kharpert where, unfortunately, we had a hard time putting Boghos in the orphanage. The orphanage was full, and many requests were just being ignored. However, my mother was not the type of woman who would easily give up. Struggling against poverty and facing a lot of obstacles, my mother finally managed to send me to the Euphrates College. This was thanks to Prof. Tenekejian who couldn’t refuse a widow. The late Prof. Tenekejian ordered me to serve the missionaries after classes and make sure that the school territory was clean. By a lucky chance, with time I managed to hold higher positions in the college.

One day I found myself in America and within a short period of time I managed to enter Iowa State University. Thanks to my determination, diligence, endurance, and perseverance (typical of all the people of Khoshmat), I managed to overcome all the difficulties I faced. In June 1914, I earned combined degrees (BS and DDS) after attending the State University of Iowa and National University of Arts in Missouri.

My mother’s sacrifices and her fearless nature will be always be remembered not only by her sons, but also by all the people of Khoshmat and Kharpert who she was once close with. I will always cherish the memory of this exceptionally adventurous woman, Mother Anna Chakoian (Gyulisdan). As her only living son, I witnessed all her sufferings and hardships; now I’m fully aware that I’m indebted to my courageous, distressful and gritty mother for everything I have now in my life.

May her memory be a blessing!