History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

The herdsman of Khoshmat: Sarkis Shahrigian

One day in spring when the morning dew was glistering on the grass, when the rooster was crowing and the church bells were loudly ringing, Srko (Sarkis) rushed to the square at the end of the village. He held a long, thick crook in his hand; a white bag filled bread, a clove of garlic, a little bit of cheese and a wooden cup hung around his neck and left shoulder.

Wearing his aba (an outer garment made from natural hair) which protected him from wind and rain, he shouted in a loud and hoarse voice: "The herd is wandering away. Bring them over quickly!" This poor man had to wait for hours for the cows, goats and sheep to be milked so that he could take them back with him. Women, young girls, and young men would bring their animals and give them to the herdsman.

Keeping the careless and playful goats still for a long time while waiting for the other animals to reach them required a lot of effort from the herdsman because these fearless and impudent goats could easily jump over the rocks no matter how huge and scamper to the highest peaks. Yelling insults at the goats, shouting, or throwing stones at them was pointless as they wouldn’t listen to the threats of the herdsman—some of them would just keep bleating while others would run to the guilder rose growing on the hillside.

After completing the herding process and shouting a loud "Ho!" Sarkis let the cows slowly walk to the fields while he threw small stones at the goats perched on the rocks.  Sometimes he would use his slingshot so that the stones served their purpose better. It was really challenging for him to bring the happy, crazy goats down to the herd.

The cattle were lowing, the sheep were bleating, the dogs were barking and the herdsman was loudly shouting "Ho ho, hey hey"; all these sounds merged with the songs and twittering of birds, completing the morning panorama of Khoshmat in the springtime.

The herdsman Srko (Sarkis Shahrigian) was the only son of his parents; he had five sisters. His father, Shahin, was one of the richest men in the region. He had been to Constantinople several times and had made a good amount of money merchandising. His beautiful two-story house was decorated with oriental carpets. Though the Kurdish and Turkish burglars oftentimes tried to rob these carpets in the middle of the night, all their efforts had failed.

However, during the bloody massacre of 1895 Shahrigian’s house was ultimately robbed and burnt to ashes. Everything was stolen and lost. Sarkis was reduced to grazing the villagers’ herd in order to feed his family; the enemies had cut and thrown away even the fruit trees growing in the gardens and parks of the village. By putting several long and thick sticks on two beams, he built a one-room house in the exact same place where his previous house had burnt into ashes. He moved there with his two sons. (Shahin now lives in Providence and Vartan lives in Marseille with his children.)

This modest and humble herdsman Sarkis served the people of Khoshmat for decades. His loyalty and liveliness were highly appreciated among the villagers. Grazing the animals on the fresh green valleys, protecting them from the starving wolves, and fighting against the Kurdish and Turkish robbers, he never lost even one creature from his flock.

It’s very interesting to watch the herd coming back in the evening healthy and safe. The cattle walk very fast as they moo—their udders filled with milk. The fat-tailed sheep are full and are rushing home to see their lambs. Walking ahead of the herd and screaming "Meeh, meeh, meeh," the goats leave everyone behind just to see their kids. The villagers always come to meet the herd, each of them taking their animal home so that the kids, lambs and calves don’t mistake their mothers for someone else before the milking process.

Sometimes the villagers took pity on the herdsman and sent him dairy products such as milk, cream, torakh (a form of cottage cheese made from yogurt,) buttermilk, and tandoor milk, telling him: "Srkapar, I have a little something for you so that you take good care of our cattle." The herdsman would shake his head as a sign of gratitude and say: "As you wish, sister Yeghso. Don’t worry; I will be very attentive to your cattle."  A little later another villager would come to the herdsman saying: "Hey, Srkapar, I have brought yoghurt (madzun) for you. Please take good care of our ewes."  To which the herdsman would respond: "Of course, sister Sro (Sarah, an old lady,) your ewes are top priority for me."