History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghugian’s Life (A Volunteer)

After the triumphal victory of the Battle of Arara, "Peno" (Benjamin) was the first whom the Colonel praised and rewarded with a Medal of Honor for his bravery, courage and tenacity.

When the soldiers went to Aleppo after their victory, they heard that the old enemy of the people of Khoshmat, Rushdi Bey, was also there. Benjamin asked the Colonel for a two-week holiday, but he was turned down. So, Benjamin snuck out of the army camp in the middle of the night and, renting a horse, reached Aleppo where he hoped to achieve his revenge.

In those days Rushdi Bey was trying to convince the survivors of the massacres (who were from Khoshmat) to leave for Palu with him by making false promises. Not only did the villagers reject him, they also informed their compatriots about Rushdi Bey’s intentions.

While Benjamin was looking for people to disclose Rushdi Bey’s whereabouts, the Bey’s men informed him about the Armenian volunteer’s arrival. Rushdi Bey ran to Palu where, as we have already said, he was hanged (at the command of M. Kemal.) This is how he was punished for his crimes. Benjamin returned to the army camp quite disappointed that he had not personally had a hand in Rushdi Bey’s death.


On September 4, 1918, in the middle of the night, Benjamin took a couple of friends and went to the Turkish village called "Ileas." Benjamin explained to his friends that the goal of their visit was to rob the village, but more important, not to get caught after the robbery.

The inexperienced boys were caught right after the first robbery while Benjamin ran away from the village, taking 90 banknotes with him; later he gave the banknotes to Garabed Ghazarian (who has personally told about this incident.) The next morning, when the villagers went to file a complaint, they recognized Benjamin among the Armenian volunteers. In order to save his friends, this clever man told everyone that it was he who had robbed the villagers while his friends were just observers of the crime. After this announcement all the boys except Benjamin were released.

At the military court Benjamin announced: "Your honor, I plead guilty to this crime but please kindly take a look at the French Code, Chapter 26, No. 4, which says 'Release the ones who were not caught red-handed.'" This is how Benjamin obtained his freedom.


Another volunteer, Mr. Garabed Ghazarian, has personally told the author of this book that Benjamin Shaghugian was the life and soul of the Eastern Legion. He couldn’t find words to describe Benjamin’s bravery, courage and tenacity.

"When we were in Cilicia trapped in the battlement of Alma and watched by the guards day and night, Benjamin always somehow managed to get out of the battlement and come back later. Still we have no clue how he did that. Benjamin often got into trouble but due to his cleverness, he always managed to get away with anything within the limits of the law. The command of the French armed forces asked Benjamin to stay among their soldiers, but he refused to do so, asking them 'Where is your promised Cilicia?'"