History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

If we are ever asked to add one more wonder to the Seven Wonders of the World, we will choose the huge fort of Palu. On its northern side the town of Palu, the majestic fort and its ruins, are surrounded by the Taurus Mountains on the plateau where the Turkish-populated district Zovia is located. In order to reach these ruins, one climbs the stone stairways leading to the beautiful valley below. The town of Palu was built on the slopes next to the southern side of the fort. The edges of the shoreline houses of the town are washed by the waters of the Aradzani River.

The arched Taurus mountain range rises on the south of the river and stretches to the east, forming the Sassun and Krkur Mountains. To the west, continuing along the river, it reaches the fields of Kharpert, joins the Masdar, crosses the Euphrates River, and is divided into branches.

An ancient wooden bridge built on the eastern side of Palu connects the northern Taurus with the southern Taurus across the River Aradzani. To the south this path leads to the villages of Armushad and to Hani, Arghni, Maden, and Diyarbekir/Dikranagerd (through Baghin.) This road is very similar to the ancient roads leading to Urartu and the Armenian Highlands. The wooden bridge reminds the people of Palu of the disastrous and bitter days of the massacre that occurred there in 1895. It also awakens memories of the horrific Armenian Genocide of 1915.

Here is how Prof. Henry Torzen describes the fort of Palu:
The town of Palu is comprised of 1500 households. The River Aradzani (Murad) gently stretches to the West. A narrow half-rounded path leads to the huge door of the fort which is a link between two towns (referring to the town of Palu and Zovia.) One can get a beautiful view of green gardens (on the southern side of the river) and the seedbed from the top of the fort.

The highest peak of the fort is rather flat and yet there are no households or gardens there. In 1122, during the fight of crusaders and the Muslims, several prominent individuals were arrested there and sent to the fort of Kharpert while twenty-five others were sent to the fort of Palu due to the lack of space.

Prof. Torzen states that the walls of the fort (a little below its top) are covered with several scripts. These scripts are cuneiform and carved on flat stones (12x6 feet in dimension.) Unfortunately, over time some of those scripts have become illegible. Under this encrypted huge stone there is a narrow path leading to the edge of the stone. Passing under the arch, the visitor enters a dark room (20x12 feet) with a flat stone roof. The room has only one door. There are also two other rooms there, the walls of which are covered with mossy and illegible scripts.

Prof. Torzen, who was guided by a Turkish soldier, was informed that these rooms were once used by St. Mesrob as an apartment. Here is where, according to the soldier, the Armenian alphabet was created.

Prof. Torzen visited Palu in 1874. Referring to St. Mesrob, the Greek professor pointed out that the saint’s works had been translated in many different European countries. Although Prof. Torzen was familiar only with a few of those works, he considered Mesrob to be the hero of the nation because he invented the Armenian alphabet and translated the Bible into Armenian. Just as Ulfilas is the Apostle of Goths and Saints Cyril and Methodius are the Apostles of Slavs, Mesrob Mashdots is the Apostle of the Armenians. Torzen adds that the Armenian alphabet was invented in the fort of Palu; this fort has always been a place of pilgrimage for Armenians.

St. Mesrob is well-known not only in Armenia but also in America. The first floor of the Newberry Library of Chicago is adorned with a huge oil painting with the inscription "Mesrob from Armenia."

Prof. Torzen gives the last noteworthy information in his work "Turkish- Armenia," which is particularly important for historians. He claims that there are long and wide pavements in some parts of the third room of the fort. Although there are some inscriptions on these pavements, most of them are impossible to read. Some are dedicated to the memory of kings and princes. The translation of these inscriptions can be found in this book. Cuneiform inscriptions on the rock of the fort are dedicated to one of the chief deities of the Kingdom of Van, "Haldi."

There are buildings with inscriptions containing curses, abusive words and threats. (These buildings will be probably destroyed one day). These are followed by information according to which many years ago the Kingdom of Armenia was a civilization center.

Hovsep Sandaljian’s book "History of Armenia" was published in Belgium in French after his death in 1916. This book provides us with very important information on Prehistoric Armenia. Today there are only two copies of this book available. One of these books belongs to the Mkhitarist Congregation in Venice and the other one is owned by Dr. P. Bailey living in Chicago.

Sandaljian states, based on information taken from the works of the Greek historian Strabo, that in 1115 B.C., 30 km away from Manazgerd, Tiglath-Pilesar fought against the United Kingdom of Armenia (referring to Urartu.) The battle took place on the banks of the River Aradzani.

According to Sandaljian, the most important expressions are "the Kingdom of Armenia" and "the United Kingdom of Urartu." It is also noteworthy that the words "Palu," "Euphrates," and "Aradzani" were used even in 1115 B.C. They are not new names!

Sandaljian further states that the Urartian King Menua won the fight in Khuzanais (a province in Palu) ruled by a king named Suli. Menua called that province "Province of the Fort" and ordered men to carve the message of his victory on the rock of the fort. It has been preserved to this day.