History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadurian (Koko)

Koko was a well-rounded man of middle height with beautiful strong arms. This fearless man from Khoshmat was known in the village for his courage and heroic acts. However, everyone used to call him crazy. One day Koko went to the field with farmers in order to harvest wheat with a sickle. He brought part of wheat sheaves to the village, leaving the rest in the field. During his absence, three wheat sheaves were stolen. Koko found the robber, who turned out to be the gardener Zilfo. When Koko was about to take his stolen wheat sheaves, Zilfo and his two sons attacked him with their daggers. Koko stepped back, took his pitchfork, and punished his rivals with it.

When the news about the fight with Zilfo and his sons spread through the Kurdish village the head of the village, Said Agha, climbed onto his white horse and rode to the place of the fight. When he saw the Kurdish men covered in blood, he went mad and rode his horse directly towards Koko, trying to trample him.

Koko took his long pitchfork, struck the head of Said Agha, and made him fall off his horse. Several Kurdish men considered fighting with Koko but gave up on this idea and ran away when they realized how powerful he was. A few hours later, several police officers came from the town and arrested this Armenian man. Taking both the stolen wheat sheaves and another sheave from his field, Koko went to the court holding his pitchfork in his hands. He appeared before the judge, told him the whole truth and showed everyone similarities between these two wheat sheaves. Thanks to the intervention of powerful individuals from Khoshmat (and a bribe offered to the judge,) Koko was declared innocent and hence was soon released.

A story about how Koko beat up Sheriff Chavush

Sheriff Chavush worked for Rushdi Bey and was responsible for the protection of the fields. One day when Koko was grazing his oxen on the borderline of the village, Sheriff ordered him to respect the law and stop grazing his cattle there. When Koko started complaining about the law, refusing to leave the field, Sheriff rushed to Koko’s cattle and started hitting the animals. Koko implored him: "Don’t hit the cattle. Hit me instead if you wish to!"

Sheriff struck Koko with his stick as hard as he could. Suddenly Koko lifted this huge man up and threw him into the nearest ditch. Then he jumped into the ditch himself and tried to strangle Sheriff in the mud. Sheriff Chavush started begging Koko to let him go. Koko took pity on him and decided not to kill him this time.

Sheriff Chavush went to the nearest brook to wash his clothes. He stayed there for hours waiting for his clothes to dry. In the evening Sheriff Chavush returned to his village and told his fellow villagers about this incident, saying: "Koko is gifted with superhuman strength. His fingers are made of steel."

At the end of 1909, according to the false Constitution adopted by the Ittihad, Armenians were to be enlisted in military service. Koko was also taken to the town of Palu. Due to his good education and excellent knowledge of the Turkish language, he was appointed a teacher in the army. Within six months the Armenian and Turkish soldiers could fluently read the Quran and Gospel. Koko received many rewards for being such a good teacher. Every Sunday after praying and singing in the church choir, he returned to the barracks.

Upon hearing about the wisdom of Koko, the Sheikh of the town personally visited the army and discovered that this Armenian man was more familiar with the rules of the Quran than he was. The Sheikh expressed his admiration for Koko and encouraged him to become a Muslim, promising to appoint him a religious leader and give him a military discharge as a reward. He also promised to pay him a salary and provide him with everything he might need. Koko became furious, slapped the Sheikh on his face, and immediately ordered him away.

The commander of the barrack spoke to Koko and gave him the following advice: "Son, mind your own business and ignore everyone else." Despite the complaints of the Government, through the intervention of the commander Koko was pardoned.

During the war period, when the soldiers of Palu joined the IV Army of Kharpert, Koko expressed a desire to visit one of the Armenian churches in Mezre as he always did on Sundays. When the guards tried to prevent him from doing so, Koko instantly knocked them down. Koko was arrested and was presented to the General as a disobedient soldier. Koko tried to explain that by visiting churches, soldiers satisfy their spiritual hunger, but all in vain. The General, who was mad at him for his defiance, tried to slap him in the face. Koko sidestepped the blow and hit the General himself, knocking him to the ground. The General stood up and ordered Koko brought to the Military Court in order to severely punish him to the full limits of the law. Koko was sentenced to death.

This terrible news spread through Khoshmat at the speed of light. Several prominent villagers under the direction of Bedros Effendi Fermanian went to the military commander of Palu (who had always admired the virtues of Koko,) asking him to intervene and help to resolve this problem. When the commander signed the petition for forgiveness, the villagers and a well-known lawyer rushed to Kharpert, to the Supreme Court of the Armed Forces. Fortunately, they managed to prove that Koko had suffered from mental disorder since childhood, so he could often act like a crazy person.
Thanks to these arguments Koko was found innocent and was discharged from the army. After six months of imprisonment, he returned to Khoshmat. During the forced deportation of the people of Khoshmat, Koko joined the group of Misak Shaghugian, fighting against the enemy and killing dozens of Kurds and policemen. Upon realizing that they were running out of bullets, the villagers killed themselves by shooting themselves through their own mouths. Koko followed the example of his brave friends.