History of Khoshmat - Dr. Mardiros H. Chakoian

Editorial note


Vartan Vartanian


Chapter 1: Palu and the fort

Chapter 2: Monasteries and Sanctuaries


Chapter 1: Education in Palou

Chapter 2: United Association of Armenians in Palou

• Havav

• Nerkhi

Chapter 3

• Villages of Palou

• Statistics of Palou Armenian-inhabited villages

• The Great Earthquake of Palou


Chapter 1

• Khoshmat

• The Holy Mother of God Church

• The Church of Khoshmat

• Priests

Chapter 2 : Sanctuaries

• Abdul-Mseh (Donag)

• Holy Cross

• Holy Cathedral

• St. Giragos

• St. Mangig

Chapter 3

• Springs

• Field Springs

• Humanlike Stones

Chapter 4

• Tbrotsasirats Association and the School of Khoshmat

• Teachers (1880-96)

• The First Graduates of the School of Khoshmat

• The Last Graduates of Khoshmat’s High School (1913-1914)

• Khoshmat Through My Eyes

Chapter 5: The Intellectuals of Khoshmat

• Arakel Babajanian

• Bedros effendi Fermanian

• Hampartsoum Oulousian

• Vahan Oulousian

• Vartan Dirad

• Garabed Klanian

• Sarkis B. Klanian

• Toros Klanian

• Bedros Papazian

• Boghos H. Chakoian

• Haroutiun Vartanian

• Manoug Dzaghigian

• Kapriel Frangian

• Dikran Ghazaros Bedigian

• Hagop Ghazaros Bedigian

• Mikayel Khodjoian

• Boghos Deradourian

• Hampartsoum Harutounian (Bournousouzian)

• Bethlehem Markarian (Shaghougian)

• Mgrdich Malian

• Boghos Papazian

• Karekin Garabedian

• Father Manoug Khodjoian

• Hovhannes Klanian

Chapter 6 : The Important Initiatives of the Tbrotsasirats Association of Khoshmat

Chapter 7 : Ladies Auxiliary Society of Khoshmat

Chapter 8 : Architects

• Aznavour Efendi Khodjoian

• Toros Khalifa Malian (Ghazarian) Kara Toros

• Mardiros Ghazarian

• Simon Khalifa Bedigian or Melkonian

• Arakel Milidosian

• Garabed Milidosian

• Sahag Oulousian

• Haji Krikor Milidosian

• Donabed Khabloian (Arghntsonts)

• Markar Shaghougian

• Kokona Vartan

Chapter 9 : Various types of crafts

• Joinery

• Masonry

• Carpeting

• Pottery

Chapter 10 : Manufacturing

• Oil presses of Khoshmat

• Hand Millstone

• Fruits

• Vegetables


Chapter 1 : Traditions and Customs

• New Year

• Christmas

• Paregentan

• Easter

• Wedding

• Life of the Bride

• Songs

• Popular Medicine

• Wishes and blessings

• Curses

• Things portending misfortune

• Dream interpretation

• Riddles

• Sayings (Fables)

• Provincial Proverbs (Talks)

• Commonly used phrases

• Games (for boys)

• Words of wisdom from the elderly people

Chapter 2 : Historic Characters and Famous Events

• Father Khachadour Shiroian

• Father Reteos Simonian

• Mardiros Shahen Chakoian

• Sarkis effendi Dzaghigian’s royal medal

• Boghos Harutounian

• Nazar Nazarian

• The Power of the Pitchfork and Khachig Chakoian

• How Sarkis Vartanian Drowned

• Fragment of Soukias Depoian’s Life

• How We Left Khoshmat and The Intercession of St. Mangig in 1896

• Farewell of Seven Young Men

• Fragments of Simon Simonian’s Life

• Abduction of Paro (A Group of Pilgrims)

• Tax Collectors

• Incident with Bedros Simonian

• Interesting Memoirs of Krikor Der Khachadourian (Koko)

• Mardiros Shaghougian (Kaloian) - One of His Episodes

• Fragment of Sarkis Shahin Chakoian’s Life

• Hagop Tatigian (Ali Baba)

• Haroutiun Deradourian and the Incident with the Box of Eggs

• The herdsman of Khoshmat, by Sarkis Shahrigian

• An Interesting Incident in the Life of the Herdsman


Chapter 1 : Notorious Beys of Palou

• Keor Abdullah bey

• Khoshmatlian Dynasty and Beys

Chapter 2

• Khoshmat Resistance – 1897

• The Bloody Fight

• Trial of the Beys

• The End of the Beys

• The Meliks of Khoshmat

Chapter 3 : The Order to Begin the Massacre

• The Role of Garabed Klanian and Misak Shaghougian (Kaloian)

• Khachadour Shiroian’s memoirs (From Canada)

• Mgrdich Taraian (from Marseille): Taken from his Bloody Memoirs

• Apkar Simonian

• Baghdasar Deradourian (from Marseille): Memoirs

Chapter 4

• Soldiers of Khoshmat

• Khoshmat Volunteers

• A Fragment of Volunteer’s Life

• A Fragment of Benjamin Shaghougian’s Life (A Volunteer)

• Other Soldiers Native of Khoshmat

Chapter 5 : Photos of Khoshmat Armenians

Chapter 6 : People of Khoshmat in Constantinople (Taken from the notes of the late Toros Klanian)

Chapter 7 : People of Khoshmat in Diaspora

• People of Khoshmat in France

• People of Khoshmat in Soviet Armenia

• People of Khoshmat in Syria

• People of Khoshmat in Canada

• People of Khoshmat in America

Keor Abdullah bey

The power of the beys had been enormous for decades. One day in 1845 Keor Abdullah Bey came to Khoshmat with his guard in order to visit the Melik and take the tithe. On the widest avenue of the village he had an encounter with some Kurdish people from Dersim who didn’t recognize him. They passed the Bey by without even greeting him. Abdullah Bey felt insulted and instantly ordered his guards to arrest these Dersim people. Then, he mercilessly slaughtered these poor unarmed Kurds and threw their bodies into the river.

When the people of Dersim were informed of this inhuman act, they sent a bag of gold to the villages of Palu and requested the villagers write a letter of protest against Abdullah Bey’s monstrous behavior. Fearing for their lives, all the Armenian and Kurdish inhabited villages refused to sign the document except for the people of Khoshmat. With his own hands, the famous Khoshmat writer Stepan Mnushian wrote a powerful letter of protest.

When Stepan Mnushian and the Mullah of Hoshe took the letter to Constantinople, Keor Abdullah Bey received a notice to appear in court. Unfortunately, due to his power, he managed to win the case. Saying goodbye to the pashas, he decided to visit Khoshmat.

Stepan Mnushian and the Mullah of Hoshe had already informed the people of Palu about the unfair decision of the court and asked for support from the superintendent of powder mills, Hovhannes bey Dadurian, in Constantinople. Dadurian Bey asked them to come to the palace the very next day.

When Hovhaness Bey entered the palace in his royal clothes, people immediately surrounded the Bey in order to greet him. Keor Abdullah Bey stood among these people, but when he learnt that the man wearing royal clothes was Armenian, he was furious. He not only refused to greet Hovhannes Bey but also declared that he would go to Palu and kill all the Armenian men over the age of fifteen.

After listening to these threats, Hovhannes Bey Dadurian sneered at Abdullah Bey and approached His Majesty Sultan Mahmud, slowly taking off all his royal medals. Placing the medals on the table, Dadurian said in a casual manner: "Your Highness, I cannot wear these medals awarded by Your Majesty because otherwise I will be publicly reproached by Abdullah Bey." Understanding the situation, Sultan Mahmud ordered the arrest of Keor Abdullah Bey, that he be sent him to the central prison of Tekir Dagh and beheaded there. His command was promptly obeyed. The accursed Abdullah Bey was followed by his two bloodthirsty sons Rushdi and Ibrahim Beys, who turned out to be a disaster for Palu and especially for Khoshmat. Mnushian left for Bulgaria for security reasons. His daughter Yeghisapet Papazian moved to Providence.